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The official publication of the North American Conference on British Studies (NACBS), the Journal of British Studies, has positioned itself as the critical resource for scholars of British culture from the Middle Ages through the present. Drawing on both established and emerging approaches, JBS presents scholarly articles and books reviews from renowned international authors who share their ideas on British society, politics, law, economics, and the arts. In 2005 (Vol. 44), the journal merged with the NACBS publication Albion, creating one journal for NACBS membership.

British Studies Intelligencer, 7th series,12.1 (Spring 2002)


Papers read at the Pacific Coast Conference on British Studies Annual Meeting, April 5-7, 2002, at Pomona College, Claremont, California.

"Setting the Poor to Work: Workhouse Schemes in England 1655-1714"
Diana Shull, University of Colorado at Boulder

"Negotiations of Space in Early Stuart Parish Churches: Evidence from Cheshire"
Susan Guinn-Chapman, University of Colorado at Boulder

"'Controlled Fire' and the `Frenzied Mob': The British Response to the Women's War in Nigeria, 1929"
Marc Matera, University of Colorado at Boulder

"'A Short History of the World': Anglo-Africans, the British Colonial State, and the Kinship Dimensions of Constructing a Colonial Order in Nyasaland"
Christopher J. Lee, Stanford University

"Stop the Press! News, Politics, and Popular Opinion in England, 1630-32"
Tim K. Hagen, Azusa Pacific University

"'The Latest and Best Newes': The Irish Rebellion of 1641 and the Development of the News Marketplace in London"
Stephanie Gustafson, University of California, Santa Barbara

"'The Execution of the Late King Justified': The Pro-Regicide Press in February 1649"
Amos Tubb, University of California, Riverside

"The British Literary Foundations Course: Proposed Designs"
Ann Kelly, Howard University

"Rude Intercourse in Wordsworth's 'Nook' and Lessing's 'Bush': An Example of Post-Colonial Pedagogy"
Thorell P. Tsomondo, Howard University

"Following Acclaim: A Brief History of Current Black British Literary Criticism"
Kadija George Sesay, Vilar Institute Fellow, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts

"'New British Writers' Courses and a 'Re-Invented' British Literature"
R. Victoria Arana, Howard University

"'The Insolencies of the Army': Soldiers and Civilians, 1640-1642"
David Cressy, Ohio State University

"Combat Motivation in the English Civil War"
Charles Carlton, North Carolina State University

"Myth, Memory, and Martyrdom: Colchester, 1648"
Barbara Donagan, The Huntington Library

"Voluntary Exiles: British Novelists in Hollywood, 1935-65"
Lisa Colletta, Claremont Graduate University

"HD, Tea, and Englishness"
Bryony Randall, University of Sussex

"Who Are You? What Are You? The Femme Fatale and Sexual Danger in Lady Audley's Secret"
Jennifer Hedgecock, Michigan State University

"Late Victorian Gender-Bending: William Morris's Construction of Masculine Identity"
Scot Brennan-Smith, University of California, Davis

"Liber Amoris: Reading and the Birth of the Homosexual"
David Kurnick, Columbia University

"The King's will: Henry VII's exercise of royal authority in conciliar politics and fiscal administration"
Lisa Ford, The Huntington Library

"Law, politics, and society in the 1490s: Rollesly v. Toft and disorder in Derbyshire"
Dorthea Sartain, King's College, Cambridge

"Dirty Dancing and the Erotics of Disease"
Molly Engelhardt, University of Southern California

"Ravers at the Bush: Generation Ectasy Goes to the Theatre"
William Boles, Rollins College

"Playing the China Card: The Election of 1857"
Michael Markus, Washington University in St. Louis

"Justice at Sunset: British War Crimes Trials in the Far East, 1946-1948"
Jeanie M. Welch, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

"The Advent of Beach Culture"
Robert Ritchie, The Huntington Library

"The Estates Poem and the English Civil War"
Jennifer Andersen, California State University, San Bernardino

"Royalist Garden Design in Seventeenth-Century England: Rhetoric and Iconography"
Erika Olbricht, Pepperdine University

"Stowe Gardens: A Place of Ideas and Ideology in a Living Landscape"
Catherine Fisher, Stowe Research Project, National Trust and Stowe House Preservation Trust

"'And if a woman comes unto you...': The Pastoral Care of Women in Middle English Clerical Literature"
Beth Alison Barr, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

"The Power to Decide: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Subjectivity and Capital in Medieval Marriage"
Beth Kovacs, University of Colorado at Boulder

"'Tasting the Word of God': Evangelicalism and the Religious Growth of Catherine Willoughby, Duchess of Suffolk"
Melissa Franklin Harkrider, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

"Redeeming the King's Justice after the Popish Plot: The Unusual Trial of Nathaniel Thompson, William Paine, and John Farwell"
Susan Elspeth Duncan, University of Colorado at Boulder

"Charles O'Conor's Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Late Charles O'Conor of Belanagare: An Episode in Early Modern Irish Historiography"
Olga A. Tsapina, The Huntington Library

"Bibles and Pretty Books: Reading and Authority in Victorian Anti-Catholic Fiction"
Miriam Elizabeth Burstein, State University of New York, Brockport

"Representing Early Modern Monarchy"
Kevin Sharpe, University of Warwick

"Insult, Gender, and Social Credit in Early Modern England"
Jennifer McNabb, University of Colorado at Boulder

"' is a foule reproche for other Princes abroade to bee ouercome by a Queen in al virtues...': Gender and Identity in the Dedications to Elizabeth I"
Tara S. Wood, Arizona State Univeristy

"'If it be honor in your wars': Gender, Reputation and Social Capital in Shakespeare's Coriolanus"
Emily Allen, University of Colorado at Boulder

"Confining Play: Ropedancers, Wayward Apprentices, and Other 'Evil Disposed Persons' at London's Fairs, 1690-1740"
Anne Wohlcke, University of California, Irvine

"Stuck in the Middle: Defining and Defending Female Identity and Business Rights in the London Courts, 1775-1785"
Sharlene Sayegh, University of California, Irvine

"From Singers to Servers: Women at the National Gallery Concerts, 1940-1946"
David Sheridan, University of Southern California

"The Problem of the Lord Steward in the Elizabethan Royal Household"
Robert J. Mueller, Utah State University

"Sir Nicholas Throckmorton and the 'Advice to Queen Elizabeth': A Re-examination"
Kenneth Kisner, Utah State University

"A Catholic Rising in the 1590s: Philip II, the Armadas, and the Question of the Tudor Succession"
Edward Tenace, Lyon College

"'The best humoured worst looking fellows imaginable': English Sociability and the Levantine Dialogue"
Jason M. Kelly, University of California, Santa Barbara

"The Translation Market in Eighteenth-Century England"
Mary Helen McMurran, University of Chicago

Papers read at the Middle Atlantic Conference of British Studies Annual Meeting, April 5-6, 2002, CUNY Graduate Center, New York City.

"The War for the Workers and the Battle of the Bones: Religious Space in Mid-Nineteenth Century Britain"
Shannon Bontrager, Georgia State University

"Service to God, Service to England: Missionaries to Lepers in British India"
D. George Joseph, Yale University School of Medicine

"'Hold fast the form of sound words': The Debate Over the Accession Declaration Bill of 1910"
Kathleen Ruppert, The Catholic University of America

"Banking on Panic: Victorian Banking Crises in Political Graphics and the Novel"
Gail Houston, University of New Mexico

"Culture and the Copy: Design Copyright Debates, Capitalism, and British Industrial Aesthetics"
Lara Kriegel, Florida International University

"'Fitted Up Like Palaces': Show-shops and the Victorian Seamstress"
Beth Harris, SUNY Fashion Institute of Technology

"A 'Galaxy of Industrial Knights': Romance, Realism, and the Business Biography, 1860-1890"
Aeron Hunt, University of Chicago

"Syphilis and the Rhetoric of Blame in Early Modern England"
Roze Hentschell, William Paterson University

"By Force and Persuasion: The New Model Army at the Siege of Bristol, Sept 1645"
Florene S. Memegalos, Hunter College

"Poor William? William Winstanly and the Mulitple Cultures of Restoration England"
William E. Burns, Washington D.C.

"Textual Fixity and the Seventeenth Century Commonplace Book, or the Anxiety That Never Was"
Amy R. Haley, Princeton University,

"The Most Politicized Landscape Park in Europe? Royals versus ‘Patriot Whigs’ at Kew, 1731- 80"
Richard Quaintance, Rutgers University

"Paying the Bills: A Social Geography of Urban Renewal in Victorian Glasgow"
Steve H. Saltzman, CUNY Graduate Center

"The Transformation of a Building Type: From Victorian Asylum to ‘Princess Park Manor’"
Deborah Weiner, University of British Columbia

"Feeding the Colonial Survey: Diet, Environment, and the Imperial Relation in Mid-nineteenth Century Canada"
Brian C. Shipley, Rutgers University

"Pensioned Patriotism: The Sudan Government British Pensioners’ Association’s Struggle for Recognition, 1952-1965"
Lia Paradis, Rutgers University

"Imperial Nostalgia and Respectable Racism: British ‘Kith and Kin’ and Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, 1965"
Alice Ritscherle, University of Michigan

Plenary Lecture: "Love in Modern Culture: Heterosexual and Homosexual, Domesticated and Libertine, Human and Divine"
Randolph Trumbach, Baruch College

"Living the Good Death: Old Age, Gender and Cultural Challenge in Early Modern England"
Aki Beam, McMaster University

"’Forsaking Their Children’: Distance, Community, and Unbecoming Quaker Mothers, 1650-1700"
Susanna Calkins, University of Louisville

"The Good Mother: Harriet Taylor Mill"
Jo Ellen Jacobs, Millikin University

"From the Trenches to the Best-Seller Lists: Changing Trends in British War Literature, 1914-1933"
Sarah Rose Cole, Columbia University

"Memory and Modernism: Renegotiating Stories of the Great War, 1946-1994"
Janet Watson, University of Connecticut

"The Economy of Expectations in Great Expectations"
Annette Van, University of Rhode Island

"’You’re More to be Relied on than Silver or Gold’: The Figuring of Woman as a Monetary Standard in Victorian England"
Tara McGann, Columbia University

"Yeats’ The Countess Cathleen as Anti-Materialist Manifesto"
Barbara A. Suess, William Paterson University

"Woman on the Woolsack: Barbara Wootton, Labour’s Champion of ‘Good Causes’"
Ellen Jacobs, Université du Québec à Montréal

"Rational Persuasion in a Mass Society: Kingsley Martin Theorizes the Press, 1918-1949"
Mark Hampton, Wesleyan College

"World War II Civilian Evacuation: A Fabian Laboratory for Post-War Reconstruction"
Polly Beals, Southern Connecticut State University

"The Irish, the Arabs, and ‘wildness’: A Vision of the British Empire"
Anna Suranyi, Northeastern University

"’Make Disciples in all Nations’: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and African Americans in the British Atlantic"
Travis Glasson, Columbia University

"A ‘Holy Experiment?’ The Quaker Atlantic Community and the Early English Empire, c. 1650-1700"
Abigail L. Swingen, University of Chicago

"Stafford, Ireland and the Politics of Honor"
Brendan Kane, Princeton University

"Cavan 1641: The Experience of Survival During the Irish Rebellion"
Joseph Cope, SUNY Geneseo

"Re-Membering Montrose: Mercurius Caledonius and the Restoration of Aristocratic Culture in Scotland, 1660-61"
John M. Hintermaier, Princeton University

"The Economics of Victimization: Women and the Investment Economy in Victorian England"
George Robb, William Paterson University

"Of Love and Fraud: Speculating on Victorian Marriage"
Rebecca Stern, Ball State University

"Courts of the Poor: Law, Negotiation and Charity in Victorian London"
Sascha Auerbach, Mississippi State University

"Missionary or Spy? Children’s Heroes and Imperial Identity"
Dara Regaignon, Princeton University

"'If You Can Keep Your Head…’ Gender and Heroism in the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891"
Mary Procida, Temple University

"’The Man Whom We Had Least Expected to Fail’: Edgar Evans and the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-12"
Stephanie L. Barczewski, Clemson University

"’She was Clear-headed, Witty and Large-hearted’: the Political Career of Theresa, the Marchioness of Londonderry, 1911-1919"
Rachel E. Finley-Bowman, Delaware Valley College


Re-Writing the Past, the 71st Anglo-American Conference of Historians will take place at the Institute of Historical Research, School of Advanced Study, University of London, 3, 4, 5 July 2002. Direct inquiries to the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU. Fax: 020-7862-8745.

Institute of Historical Research -- Conferences Index
The IHR maintains a listing of upcoming conferences:


The Western Conference on British Studies announces that it will hold its 2002 Annual Meeting in Little Rock, Arkansas on 4-5 October, at the Hilton Houston Plaza. The WCBS invites scholars interested in all aspects of British Studies and the British experience, including History, Politics, Literature, Arts, and Culture. In addition, the WCBS seeks scholars concerned with the Empire, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Historiography, and the teaching of British History, Studies and the conditions of British Studies in North American colleges and universities. Chairs and Commentators: If you are interested in serving as a session chair or commentator, please submit a notice to the Program Chair with a brief c.v. and an indication of areas/topics in which you would be interested in providing comment to:

Professor Karl Ittmann
Department of History
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77204-3785
[email protected]


The Midwest Conference on British Studies (MWCBS) will hold its 2002 meeting at Ohio State University in Columbus, OHIO on October 18-20. Professor David Cressy is in charge of local arrangements. For information, contact Michael B. Young, Program Chair, MWCBS, Department of History, Illinois Wesleyan University, PO Box 2900, Bloomington, IL 61702-2900, email: [email protected]


The 2002 Meeting of the Northeast Conference on British Studies will be held October 18-19, 2002 at Yale University in New Haven, CT. The keynote speaker will be Professor Keith Wrightson, speaking on "The Decline of Neighborliness Revisited." The NECBS serves as the regional gathering for colleagues in the northeast states and eastern Canada but welcomes participants from all regions as well as outside North America. Conference information is available from NECBS Secretary/Treasurer, Professor Amy Froide, Clark University, [email protected], and NECBS President, Professor Deborah Valenze, Barnard College, [email protected] Updated information will be available on the NECBS website:



The Southern Conference on British Studies solicits proposals for its 2003 meeting to be held November 6-9, 2003 in Houston, Texas. The SCBS will meet in conjunction with the Southern Historical Association. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE CONFERENCE WILL MEET FROM THURSDAY TO SUNDAY RATHER THAN THE USUAL WEDNESDAY TO SATURDAY.

The SCBS construes British Studies widely and invites participation by scholars in all areas of British history and culture, including the Empire or Commonwealth and the British Isles, interdisciplinary approaches and proposals which focus broadly on teaching British studies are especially welcome.

Proposals may consist of individual papers or of papers grouped for a session. For session proposals, two, or, preferably, three papers should relate to a common theme, not necessarily bound by the usual chronological framework.

For each paper proposed, please submit an abstract of 200 to 300 words, indicating the thesis of the paper, the sources and methodology employed in research, and how it enhances or expands knowledge of its subject. Papers should have a reading time of twenty to twenty-five minutes. Also, please submit a curriculum vitae for each participant.

PROPOSALS SHOULD BE POSTMARKED BY SEPTEMBER 28, 2002 AND MAILED TO: Dr. Neal R. McCrillis, Center for International Education, Columbus State University, 4225 University Avenue, Columbus, Georgia, 31907. Inquiries are welcome at [email protected], but please do not send proposals by email or fax. You may consult the Southern Conference on British Studies website at:


Nineteenth Century Studies Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, March 6-9, 2003, THEME: "Feasts and Famine." One-page proposals, single-spaced, for 20 minute papers should be accompanied by a 1-2 page c.v. Proposals for a 90-minute panel should include (1) a cover letter from the panel organizer, indicating format and title of proposed session; (2) one-page proposal; and (3) 1-2 page c.v. from each participant. Email or mail proposals SIMULTANEOUSLY to the Conference Program Co-Chairs:
Dr. Marilyn Kurata, [email protected], Dept. of English, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1260; and Dr. Elizabeth Winston, [email protected], Dept. of English, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL 33606-1490.
Proposals and required accompanying materials must be postmarked by OCTOBER 15th, 2002. Decisions will be announced by December 2002.


The Body: The 72nd Anglo-American Conference of Historians, will take place on 2-4 July 2003. From Aristotle to Foucault, the body has been widely regarded (and no less widely denied) as the essential crossroads between self and society. Next year's Anglo-American Conference will be devoted to the history of the body in all its multifarious aspects and multiple meanings: as corporeal and disembodied, mind-body-soul, the body politic; as diet, eating, nutrition and malnutrition; as skin and bones, head and heart, flesh and blood, sanity and madness; as childhood, youth, maturity and old age; as men and women, black and white, civilised and barbarian, saved and damned; as regulation, discipline, coercion, punishment, defilement and torture; as health, hygiene, medicine, anatomy, treatment and cleanliness; as dress, undress, dance, theatre, sport, performance and recreation; as morals and manners, behavior and politeness, beauty and purity; as fasting, piercing, tattooing and self-mutilation; as photographs, portraits, effigies, death masks and other forms of representation; as birth (and birth control), copulation, incest, death, funerary rituals and commemoration.

The deadline is 1st November 2002 and both suggestions and proposals should be sent to Dr Debra Birch, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU. Fax: 020-7862-8745. Email: [email protected]


Science, its Advocates and Adversaries, 17th Summer Conference of the Institute of Contemporary British History at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, 7-9 July 2003. Changes in Science, Technology and Medicine have profoundly affected all aspects of British life over the past century, from the kitchen to the battlefield, at home, at work, at leisure, in town and country. The capacity to kill and the capacity to cure and to extend life have never grown faster. For much of the twentieth century these changes were generally greeted with enthusiasm and awe as unquestionable improvements and the experts responsible for them were held in respect, though there was always a strand of opposition, in particular to armaments. In the later twentieth century the previously dominant deference to scientific expertise was replaced by widespread scepticism of scientific and medical authority. The conference seeks to explore how this change came about within the wider context of discussing the production and application of scientific knowledge and its impact on British society.

Topics to be considered might include: Who are the scientists? specific innovations and their impacts e.g. penicillin, the pill, the motory-cycle, the washing machine, the mobile phone; household technology and women's lives; communications; diseases and their eradication; the environment; popular attitudes to science, scientists and scientific expertise; R&D and the fortunes of the British economy; cultural representations of science, technology and medicine.

It should be stressed that we shall only accept papers which present the findings of new research. The conference will include a mixture of plenary speakers, panels and parallel seminars. Young researchers and postgraduates are particularly encouraged to apply. The deadline is 31 December 2002. Please send short proposals (no more than 300 words) for individual papers or panels to Dr Harriet Jones, ICBH, Institute of Historical Research, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU. EMail: [email protected] Electronic submission is preferred.


Britain and the Culture of the Cold War, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, 12-13 September 2003. Organisers: Dr Tony Shaw, University of Hertfordshire, Dr James Chapman, Open University and the Institute of Contemporary British History. In 1997 the Institute of Contemporary British History held a conference on 'Britain and the Cold War', at which the majority of papers concentrated on matters relating to Britain's role overseas. This conference, to be held at the Institute of Historical Research in September 2003, focuses instead on how the Cold War affected Britain on the 'home front'. In particular, it seeks to examine the relationship between the Cold War and British culture.

While the Cold War remains a crucial event in the political, military and economic history of modern times, it had an enormous impact upon culture, both domestically and internationally. In the past decade, historical attention has turned to the cultural dimensions of the Cold War, with most research being confined to the United States in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. With potential American comparisons in mind, this conference aims to bring together contemporary historians and researchers in fields such as media studies, literary criticism and political science to look at how the 'cultural turn' in Cold War studies relates to Britain. The conference hopefully will incorporate papers that explore the myriad aspects of British Cold War culture--of a 'low', 'high' and 'middlebrow' nature--and which examine how culture shaped and was shaped by the Cold War.

Although we are happy to consider papers on any related aspect of this themes, there are several areas that we are especially concerned to explore. These include: television, radio, and the press; cinema and theatre; literature and the fine arts; sport and recreation; religion and ideology; education and intellectuals; Britain's 'silent McCarthyism'; consumerism, fashion and music; politics, propaganda and censorship; public ritual and civic culture; images of East and West; overseas influences e.g. US 'cultural imperialism'; Britain as a point for East-West cultural exchange; British cultural exports.

Please send short proposals (no more than 300 words) for individual papers or panels to Dr. Tony Shaw, Humanities Faculty, University of Hertfordshire, Watford, Hertfordshire WD2 8AT, UK, email: [email protected], or Dr. James Chapman, Arts Faculty, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK, email: [email protected] The closing date for offers of papers is 31 December 2002. It is planned to publish some or all contributions as an edited volume.



The British Studies Intelligencer is now available only online:

Folger Institute events in 2001-2002 will include a spring conference on "Ottomans and Others: Cultural Exchange in the Old World;" a spring weekend seminar on "Early Modern Paris," directed by Karen Newman, a spring semester seminar on "Change and Stability in Shakespeare's Poetry," led by Katherine Duncan-Jones; and a late spring seminar, "The Foundations of Modern International Thought, 1494-1713," directed by David Armitage. For further information contact The Folger Institute, the Folger Shakespeare Library, 201 East Capital Street SE, Washington D.C. 20003, (202)675-0333 or consult the website at

Appeal for contributions: the North West Labour History Group (England) intends to publish 2 special issues of its journal, one on the 1960s to appear in 2001 and one on the 1970s to appear in 2002. Our aim is to look at the radical social, cultural and political movements in Manchester, Liverpool and elsewhere in the north west in those decades. Most retrospectives have focused on pop and fashion and been London-centered so a revision is long overdue! Please contact Michael Herbert, c/o Working Class Movement Library, 51 Crescent, Salford M5 4MX. email: [email protected]

The American Friends of the Institute of Historical Research (AFIHR) has pledged to help pay for a new Periodicals Room at the IHR in London. Those who wish to make a contribution for this or another purpose may send it to Nancy Ellenberger, Assistant Secretary for Membership, AFIHR, Department of History, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5044. For further information, you may write to Daniel Baugh, the new President of the organization, at the Department of History, McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4601, (607)533-4318, or consult the AFIHR web-site at:

The Center for British Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder has prepared an updated version of its "Finding Guides to the British Studies Collections at the University of Colorado Libraries." The Finding Guides are accessible on-line through the Center for British Studies' Website: The Center welcomes visitors who come to use the collections amidst Boulder's many non-academic charms. For further information, contact Elizabeth Robertson, the Director of the Center: [email protected]

For information about the Huntington Library series on early modern history, contact Barbara Donagan at the Huntington Library, 1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108 or at [email protected]

British Studies Conferences on the Web:
NACBS website:
Middle Atlantic Conference on British Studies(MACBS):
Mid-West Conference on British Studies (MWCBS):
North East Conference on British Studies (NECBS): http:://

Northwest Conference on British Studies (NWCBS):

Pacific Coast Conference on British Studies (PCCBS):
The Southern Conference on British Studies (SCBS):
Western Conference on British Studies (WCBS):




John W. Cell (1935-2001)
As readers of the British Studies Intelligencer will already know, John W. Cell, long-time professor of history at Duke University, died in a boating accident on Kerr Lake, in North Carolina, on October 26, 2001. He was sixty six years old and very much in the midst of a distinguished scholarly career that ranged across the fields of British, African, Indian, and American history. Born in Illinois in 1935, Jack (as he was universally known), grew up in Raleigh, North Carolina, the son of Mary Louise and John Wesley Cell, an eminent mathematician at North Carolina State University. He went to Duke as a freshman in 1953 and (but for a brief stint in the army following his graduation in 1957) there he stayed, for both his PhD (1965) and his entire, nearly forty-year teaching career. Along the way, Jack advised a number of graduate students, some of whom have gone on to make their own marks in various fields. But to his credit, his first commitment was always to his undergraduates. As long-time director of the History Department's senior honors program, Jack introduced an unusual level of professional discipline and rigor into undergraduate education at Duke. He was, in truth, a stern taskmaster, and not everyone endured his inimitable style of open and incisive criticism. But those who did inevitably found themselves the better and wiser for it. Jack taught one how to read a book, how to write a clear sentence, how to make a persuasive historical argument. He was a terribly effective if sometimes intimidating teacher, and the best part of his legacy lies in the impressive number of Duke undergraduates he inspired to become historians.
As a scholar, Jack combined archival rigor and interpretive sophistication in a rare way. His first book, British Colonial Administration in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1970) was an important analysis of colonial policy, which, ahead of his time, Jack understood not as a thing, but as a process, not as a settled course adopted and followed, but as "an unsettled and changing set of responses by government to the continual interaction among men, forces, ideas, and institutions." (xi) In short, Jack gave life, spirit, and complexity to what might have been a dry subject, and thus established his reputation. His long study of British thinking about Africa between the two world wars then culminated, somewhat unexpectedly, in The Highest Stage of White Supremacy (1982), a highly original and highly controversial comparative study of the origins of segregation in South Africa and the American South. Against those inclined to trace its origins deep into the white supremacist, slave-holding past of these two societies, Jack defined segregation as a distinctively new system, closely associated, in South Africa and the United States, with urbanization, industrialization, and modern processes of state and party formation. He then turned, for the first time, to India, and the life of Lord Hailey, the most distinguished member of the Indian Civil Service in the twentieth century, to illuminate an entire phase of British colonial history. No mere life story, Hailey (1992) is a model study of its kind, a close analysis of the work and thought of one important man, but also, as the subtitle succinctly put it, "a study in British imperialism." Where Jack would have gone from there we will never fully know. At different times he told me he was at work on both a sequel to The Highest Stage of White Supremacy and a book on Liverpool as a vortex of empire. We will miss these. But there was much more to Jack Cell's life than his books. Teacher, father, friend, athlete, singer, he was in every respect in the prime of his versatile life, and it says more than anything else could about him that when the dreadful moment of emergency struck, his last act was to save the life of another.
Stewart Weaver, University of Rochester

Edward F. Wall, Jr. (1928-2001)
Edward F. Wall, Jr., history professor at the College of the Holy Cross and former president of the New England Conference on British Studies, died on August 10, 2001, at Auburn, Massachusetts. Born in New York City in 1928, son of Edward F. Wall, Sr., and Ann J. (Trotter) Wall, he received his bachelor’s degree from Fairfield University, master’s from Fordham University, and his doctorate from Columbia University. He served in the Marine Corps during the Korean War. He taught at Holy Cross for 34 years, and was assistant dean and associate professor of history when he retired in 1993.

Ed Wall, whose scholarly interests focused on the educational reforms of Joseph Lancaster, was a mainstay of the New England Conference of British Studies at a time of change and uncertainty. He was the New England regional president from 1971 to 1972 and again from 1981 to 1991. Throughout his decade of leadership, Ed maintained a regular schedule of annual conferences that exhibited some of the finest research emerging from our universities and colleges. Reflecting the gratitude of the NACBS for his faithful service, R.K. Webb recognized that it was Ed who kept ‘things afloat’ during a period when leadership was most needed in the region. By maintaining the strength of the NECBS in this period, Ed paved the way for its transformation into the Northeast Conference of British Studies in 1991.

Ed’s wife of 46 years, Frances (Murphy) Wall, died less than a month after him on September 6, 2001. They left four daughters and two sons. As noted at Ed’s funeral, “Ed is not merely a memory; he is part of all of us, part and parcel of all who knew him. … Who and what we are, Ed has helped immeasurably to shape.” Similarly, Ed Wall’s years at the NECBS left their mark as he sustained the organization and shaped it for the future. We fondly remember Ed Wall for his dedication to the Conference and as a colleague and fellow historian. (With thanks to the Archives of the College of the Holy Cross.)
Paul R. Ziegler, Assumption College

Roy Porter (1946-2002)
Roy Porter, the popular and well-regarded historian of medicine, science, and the Enlightenment, died on 3 March 2002. Roy was well known to the public for his frequent appearances on radio and television in the UK, culminating in a recent one-hour television program on the Enlightenment in Britain, which was based on his book, Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World (2000). He also authored The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity and over 200 other books and articles; he most recently published Madness: A Brief History (2002), which has also been reviewed widely and appreciatively.

Roy was born on the last day of 1946 as the son of a jeweller, growing up in south London (New Cross Gate) until in 1959 his family moved to the pebble-dash suburb of Norwood, five miles away. He describes his as a happy childhood despite the roughness of the neighborhood, and he remained a committed Londoner throughout his life. (He includes a few autobiographical remarks in the preface to his typically wide-ranging and energetic London: A Social History, 1994). His English teacher at Wilson’s school in Camberwell, David Rees, awakened him to the life of the mind. Because of Roy’s obvious intelligence, he obtained a scholarship to Cambridge and entered the history tripos, becoming a member of a remarkable group of students who studied with Jack Plumb and Quentin Skinner, graduating B.A. in 1968 from Christ’s College (first class honours with distinction). He continued at Christ’s and at Churchill College, taking his PhD from Cambridge in 1974. In 1979 he joined the Academic Unit of the Institute for the History of Medicine at the Wellcome Trust, and rose to the rank of Professor at University College London, where he remained until taking early retirement in September 2001. At his death he was Professor Emeritus and had been nominated for the distinction of Honorary Fellow of UCL.

Roy commanded several fields: the history of geology, London, 18th-century British ideas and society, medicine, madness, quackery, patients and practitioners, literature and art, on which subjects (and others) he published over 200 books and articles. He much appreciated that famous 18th-century Londoner, Samuel Johnson, and admired (and wrote about) the work of Edward Gibbon. He was clearly happy in retirement at St. Leonard’s, near Hastings, where he spent time working his allotment as well as sometimes catching the train to London; he was hoping to learn how to play the trumpet or saxophone (stories vary) and had started to travel the world. Roy was of course also engaged in the planning for many other works of the mind. All who knew him (including several former wives) continued to appreciate his huge love of life and enormous energy, plentiful jewellery and stubble of a beard, and frank but generous criticism. He is survived by his mother, and by his partner, Natsu Hattori, to whom he dedicated his last books, calling her ‘the love of my life.’
Harold J. Cook, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL